Some stereotypes are extremely prominent and widely believed while some are more specific beliefs held within specific groups. They differ in the groups they refer to, the types of limitations or expectations placed on athletes, and the degree to which they are believed; however, they are all similar in one way: Another way of saying this is that they lack truth and are construed by narratives social, cultural, media-driven, etc. Black athletes rely on athleticism while white athletes rely on intellect and hard work.
Nonetheless, inequality and discrimination continue to dominate in sporting activities in the UK. It is against this background that the phenomenon of inequality and discrimination in sports has led to a wide spread debate within the media, in the wider sports community and amongst policy makers.
A tranche of studies has explored on the nature and the extent to which racism has become more prevalent in British sports. Generally, a bulk of attention has been directed at the professional soccer fans whilst other studies have cited racism at the grass roots especially among the players, coaches and spectators.
On the part of the government, there is a presumption that sport promotes integration and social inclusion. In Britain, discrimination and subsequent inequality has been around for quite a long time.
It should however be noted that racism in sports in not only confined to Britain. However, significant progress has been made by the UK government to stamp out this menace. Further, Equality Standards have been developed in British sports by public governing bodies in collaboration with national sports equity organizations campaigning for diversity and greater equality in sports.
However, a study by Crabbe notes that the underlying negative feelings, stereotypes and abusive comments directed at the black players appear to still exist. Despite tremendous strides by the blacks in many pro sports, it is striking to note that their involvement and participation in sports is still constrained by sexist, racist and homophobic comments.
Whilst addressing stereotypical perceptions in sports, Denham et alsuggested these standard conceptions a The white athletes always get praised for their perceived intellect and leadership capacity b While the black athletes are praised because they are perceived as naturally talented.
Other researchers have displayed similar findings, describing the aforementioned points in juxtaposed fashion, suggesting that whites are not seen to be athletic while the blacks are seen to lack the requisite intellect and leadership skills.
Denhamfocused on the aforementioned stereotypes in the sports commentary.
The findings amongst the sport commentators were that black athletes were perceived to be more athletic while the white athletes were expected to have an innate ability to overcoming odds to accomplish their athletic stature. More surprisingly is the fact that, up to date, there are still only two black managers in all the leagues namely: Clearly, the management of football is still overwhelmingly white dominated.
From what can be discerned, racism is still prevalent in British sports. In a survey conducted by the FA Premier League init emerged that of the total sample of active top level fans, only 0.
Even in areas with large ethnic minority populations, attendance to football matches among these minority groups was very low. Racial discrimination still remains prevalent to some extent in most professional clubs. These figures tally with those obtained from a national survey conducted by the Football League in The experience of all forms of racism and discrimination often result in the Asian and Black people participating in separate sporting activities from the whites.
In a survey conducted by the Office for National Statistics on sporting activities and aspirations of the ethnic minority groups in England during ; the black Caribbean, Pakistani, Indian and Bangladeshi populations had their rates of participation in sports lower than those of the National average Berthoud, Swimming, for instance, had a lower ranking in participation amongst most ethnic minorities.
Similarly, the participation levels in walking amongst these minority groups were significantly below the average population. Clearly, sports has become a medium for racial discrimination either through a racist culture which attaches itself to sports or through institutionalized racism.
Despite official optimism that the menace is declining, it is still the case that racism continues to taint British sports both on and off the pitch.
However, globally, more women are disadvantaged by gender constructs which prevent them from accessing resources, realizing their rights and harnessing opportunities Steve, For example, Sport is generally considered a social and cultural process in which social constructions of masculinity and feminity play a key role.
Women are thus segregated involuntarily into different sporting activities, competitions and events specifically targeted to women.Summary: New research has revealed racial stereotyping in the way media portray athletes.
Sports stereotypes have a real effect in the real world. Most employers are not concerned with employees' natural athletic abilities, so stereotypes of African-Americans being athletically. 6 Sports, Media and Stereotypes area about the impact of their representation of male and female athletes, particularly in the media, and how it creates and maintains traditional images of women and men.
Stereotypes like all men like sports or women are not as strong as men, are among the most common in our society. Stereotypes have created a distortion of how every individual should be. We as part of the generation Y should know how these stereotypes could affect us as individuals.
This chapter examines the role of stereotype threat in creating racial and gender differences in sports performance. During the last decade, scholars, journalists, and athletes relied on bioevolutionary or sociological factors to explain racial and gender differences in athletic competition.
2 sports, will be presented and discussed in relation to the impact female gender stereotypes have on girls and women who participate in traditional and non-traditional sports.