Basic geometrical optics

Fibre-optic communication systems that transmit signals more than a few kilometres also use semiconductor laser beams. The optical signals are sent at infrared wavelengths of 1. This technology has become the backbone of… The basic medium of fibre optics is a hair-thin fibre that is sometimes made of plastic but most often of glass. This is actually the diameter of the cladding, or outer reflecting layer.

Basic geometrical optics

Movie Gallery Welcome to the Molecular Expressions website featuring our acclaimed photo galleries that explore the fascinating world of optical microscopy. We are going where no microscope has gone before by offering one of the Web's largest collections of color photographs taken through an optical microscope commonly referred to as "photo-micro-graphs".

Visit our Photo Gallery for an introductory selection of images covering just about everything from beer and ice cream to integrated circuits and ceramic superconductors.

Basic geometrical optics

These photographs are available for licensing to commercial, private, and non-profit institutions. The Universe Within - Soar through space starting at 10 million light years away from the Milky Way down through to a single proton in Florida in decreasing orders of magnitude powers of ten.

This tutorial explores the use of exponential notation to understand and compare Basic geometrical optics size of things in our world and the universe, and provides a glimpse of the duality between the macroworld around us and the hidden microworld within. Electromagnetic Radiation - Visible light is a complex phenomenon that is classically explained with a simple model based on propagating rays and wavefronts, a concept first proposed Basic geometrical optics the late s by Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens.

Electromagnetic radiation, the larger family of wave-like phenomena to which visible light belongs also known as radiant energyis the primary vehicle transporting energy through the vast reaches of the universe. The mechanisms by which visible light is emitted or absorbed by substances, and how it predictably reacts under varying conditions as it travels through space and the atmosphere, form the basis of the existence of color in our universe Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy - Spinning disk microscopy has advanced significantly in the past decade and now represents one of the optimum solutions for both routine and high-performance live-cell imaging applications.

The rapid expansion in biomedical research using live-cell imaging techniques over the past several years has been fueled by a combination of events that include dramatic advances in spinning disk confocal microscopy instrumentation coupled with the introduction of novel ultra-sensitive detectors and continued improvements in the performance of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins.

Spectral Imaging and Linear Unmixing - Spectral imaging and linear unmixing is becoming an important staple in the microscopist's toolbox, particularly when applied to the elimination of autofluorescence and for FRET investigations. Instruments equipped for spectral imaging are becoming increasingly popular and many confocal microscopes now offer this capability.

Widefield fluorescence and brightfield microscopy are also being used more frequently for resolving complex fluorophore and absorbing dye mixtures, a trend that should continue into the future. Fluorescent Protein Technology - It took over thirty years, and the advent of recombinant DNA as well as vastly improved molecular biological approaches to see the pioneering work of Osamu Shimomura developed into a useful tool for live-cell imaging by Doug Prasher and Martin Chalfie.

Just in the past decade, however, we have witnessed a truly remarkable expansion in the fluorescent protein palette, largely driven by the innovative studies from Roger Tsien's laboratory.

ADDITIONAL MEDIA

Most of the fluorescent proteins that are commonly used today have been modified through mutagenesis to optimize their expression in biological systems. Continued efforts using directed evolution approaches will no doubt improve the spectral characteristics, photostability, maturation time, brightness, acid resistance, and utility of the fluorescent protein tags for cellular imaging.

Carl Zeiss MicroImaging Online Campus - Visit the new ZEISS website that explores the fascinating world of optical microscopy and provides the necessary background to understand both the basic concepts and advanced principles.

Included are review articles, interactive Flash tutorials, reference materials, and image galleries. Light Sources for Optical Microscopy - The performance of the various illumination sources available for optical microscopy depends on the emission characteristics and geometry of the source, as well as the focal length, magnification and numerical aperture of the collector lens system.

In gauging the suitability of a particular light source, the important parameters are structure the spatial distribution of light, source geometry, coherence, and alignmentthe wavelength distribution, spatial and temporal stability, brightness, and to what degree these various parameters can be controlled.

Learning about Electricity and Magnetism - Visit our sister website for interactive Java tutorials, a timeline of historical events, a museum of antique devices, and articles on topics related to electricity and magnetism. Live-Cell Imaging - An increasing number of investigations are using live-cell imaging techniques to provide critical insight into the fundamental nature of cellular and tissue function, especially due to the rapid advances that are currently being witnessed in fluorescent protein and synthetic fluorophore technology.

As such, live-cell imaging has become a requisite analytical tool in most cell biology laboratories, as well as a routine methodology that is practiced in the wide ranging fields of neurobiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and many of the other related biomedical research disciplines.

Geometrical Optics

Comparing Confocal and Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy - Confocal microscopy offers several distinct advantages over traditional widefield fluorescence microscopy, including the ability to control depth of field, elimination or reduction of background information away from the focal plane that leads to image degradationand the capability to collect serial optical sections from thick specimens.

The basic key to the confocal approach is the use of spatial filtering techniques to eliminate out-of-focus light or glare in specimens whose thickness exceeds the dimensions of the focal plane. This interactive tutorial explores and compares the differences between specimens when viewed in a confocal versus a widefield fluorescence microscope.

Because energy transfer is limited to distances of less than 10 nanometers, the detection of FRET provides valuable information about the spatial relationships of fusion proteins on a sub-resolution scale. This interactive tutorial explores various combinations of fluorescent proteins as potential FRET partners and provides information about critical resonance energy transfer parameters, as well as suggestions for microscope optical filter and light source configuration.

The Fluorescent Protein Color Palette - A broad range of fluorescent protein genetic variants have been developed over the past several years that feature fluorescence emission spectral profiles spanning almost the entire visible light spectrum.

Extensive mutagenesis efforts in the original jellyfish protein have resulted in new fluorescent probes that range in color from blue to yellow and are some of the most widely used in vivo reporter molecules in biological research. Longer wavelength fluorescent proteins, emitting in the orange and red spectral regions, have been developed from the marine anemone Discosoma striata and reef corals belonging to the class Anthozoa.

Still other species have been mined to produce similar proteins having cyan, green, yellow, orange, red, and far-red fluorescence emission. Developmental research efforts are ongoing to improve the brightness and stability of fluorescent proteins, thus improving their overall usefulness.

Introduction to Image Processing and Analysis - John Russ has taught hands-on courses and extended workshops in image processing and analysis to more than students, worldwide, over the course of his career. His one-day tutorials and lectures, sponsored by various professional societies and other organizations, have reached several thousand more.

But the need to have a basic understanding of these topics is far wider than he can ever reach in person. Potentially everyone working with images, and certainly that includes every microscopist, needs to be aware of the possibilities and limitations of computer-based image processing and measurement.

The descriptive reviews and interactive tutorials in this section cover most of the topics that the author discusses in typical one-day tutorials.

Fluorescent Protein Fluorophore Maturation Mechanisms - Autocatalytic formation of the fluorophore also referred to as a chromophore within the shielded environment of the polypeptide backbone during fluorescent protein maturation follows a surprisingly unified mechanism, especially considering the diverse natural origins of these useful biological probes.

General considerations

Shortly after synthesis, most fluorescent proteins slowly mature through a multi-step process that consists of folding, initial fluorophore ring cyclization, and subsequent modifications of the fluorophore. The spectral properties of fluorescent proteins are dependent upon the structure of the fluorophore as well as the localized interactions of amino acid residues in the immediate vicinity, and in some cases, residues far removed from the fluorophore.

The interactive tutorials in this section explore fluorophore formation in a wide variety of spectrally diverse fluorescent proteins deduced from crystallographic studies.1 F UNDAMENTALS OF PHOTONICS Module Basic Geometrical Optics Leno S.

Pedrotti CORD Waco, Texas Optics is the cornerstone of photonics systems and applications. In this module, you will learn about one of the two main divisions of basic optics geometrical (ray) optics.

In the module to follow, you will learn about the other physical (wave) optics. barnweddingvt.com GEOMETRICAL OPTICS two mirrors.

with the mirror vertex V. Images formed with spherical mirrors As we showed earlier in Figure the center of curvature C and the focal point F.

and from there on to the corresponding image point. for both a concave and a convex spherical mirror. we can trace rays from any point on an object to the . The Molecular Expressions website features hundreds of photomicrographs (photographs through the microscope) of everything from superconductors, gemstones, and high-tech materials to .

Looking for books on Optics? Check our section of free e-books and guides on Optics now! This page contains list of freely available E-books, Online Textbooks and Tutorials in Optics.

Basic Geometrical Optics Leno S. Pedrotti CORD Waco, Texas Optics is the cornerstone of photonics systems and applications. In this module, you will learn about one of the two main divisions of basic optics—geometrical (ray) optics.

In the module to. Fibre optics: Fibre optics, the science of transmitting data, voice, and images by the passage of light through thin, transparent fibres.

In telecommunications, fibre optic technology has virtually replaced copper wire in long-distance telephone lines, and it is used to link computers within local area networks.

Optics - Wikipedia