Some economists prefer a definition of a 1. The NBER defines an economic recession as:
Overview[ edit ] Economic systems is the category in the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes that includes the study of such systems.
One field that cuts across them is comparative economic systemswhich include the following subcategories of different systems: Planning, coordination and reform. Productive enterprises; factor and product markets; prices; population.
Public economics; financial economics. National income, product and expenditure; money; inflation. International trade, finance, investment and aid.
Consumer economics; welfare and poverty. Natural resources; energy; environment; regional studies. Political economy; legal institutions; property rights. Decision-making structures of an economy determine the use of economic inputs the factors of productiondistribution of output, Economic definition of the four factors level of centralization in decision-making and who makes these decisions.
Decisions might be carried out by industrial councilsby a government agency, or by private owners. An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation, exchange and distribution of goods and services in a society or a given geographic area.
In one view, every economic system represents an attempt to solve three fundamental and interdependent problems: What goods and services shall be produced and in what quantities?
How shall goods and services be produced? That is, by whom and with what resources and technologies? For whom shall goods and services be produced? That is, who is to enjoy the benefits of the goods and services and how is the total product to be distributed among individuals and groups in the society?
The system is stabilized through a combination of threat and trust, which are the outcome of institutional arrangements.
Methods of control over the factors or means of production: The means of production may be owned privately, by the state, by those who use them, or be held in common.
Economic agents with decision-making powers can enter into binding contracts with one another. The two dominant forms of coordination are planning and markets; planning can be either decentralized or centralized, and the two coordination mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and often co-exist.
It can be based on either material reward compensation or self-interest or moral suasion for instance, social prestige or through a democratic decision-making process that binds those involved.
The incentive system may encourage specialization and the division of labor. Economic actors include households, work gangs and production teamsfirms, joint-ventures and cartels.
Economically regulative organizations are represented by the state and market authorities; the latter may be private or public entities. A public choice mechanism for law-making, establishing rules, norms and standards and levying taxes.
The scarcity problemfor example, requires answers to basic questions, such as what to produce, how to produce it and who gets what is produced. An economic system is a way of answering these basic questions and different economic systems answer them differently.
Many different objectives may be seen as desirable for an economy, like efficiencygrowthliberty and equality. Economies that combine private ownership with market allocation are called "market capitalism" and economies that combine private ownership with economic planning are labelled "command capitalism" or dirigisme.
Likewise, systems that mix public or cooperative ownership of the means of production with economic planning are called "socialist planned economies" and systems that combine public or cooperative ownership with markets are called "market socialism". This leads some economists to categorize, for example, the Soviet Union's economy as state capitalism based on the analysis that the working class was exploited by the party leadership.
Instead of looking at nominal ownership, this perspective takes into account the organizational form within economic enterprises. The means of production are primarily owned by private enterprises and decisions regarding production and investment are determined by private owners in capital markets.
Capitalist systems range from laissez-fairewith minimal government regulation and state enterprise, to regulated and social market systems, with the aims of ameliorating market failures see economic intervention or supplementing the private marketplace with social policies to promote equal opportunities see welfare staterespectively.
In socialist economic systems socialismproduction for use is carried out; decisions regarding the use of the means of production are adjusted to satisfy economic demand; and investment is determined through economic planning procedures. There is a wide range of proposed planning procedures and ownership structures for socialist systems, with the common feature among them being the social ownership of the means of production.The WBI Definition of Workplace Bullying.
Workplace Bullying is repeated, health-harming mistreatment of one or more persons (the targets) by one or more perpetrators. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Altruism and Volunteerism: The perceptions of altruism in four disciplines and their impact on the study of volunteerism DEBBIE HASKI-LEVENTHAL jtsb_ INTRODUCTION One of the important aspects of human altruism is long-term and organized activity for the benefit of others, that is, formal volunteering.
A recession is a significant decline in activity across the economy lasting longer than a few months. Prosperity means economic success of the priviledge of enjoying many goods and services. Wealth is the value of everything that people own. Explain how producing an increased amount of goods from existing resources could increase prosperity.
Businesses are impacted by a number of factors, some internal and some external. While managers may not be able to control external forces, it is essential they identify and understand them. The NBER does not define a recession in terms of two consecutive quarters of decline in real GDP.
Rather, a recession is a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales.