Oude Grieken[ bewerken ] De epistemologie is zo oud als de filosofie zelf.
Prichard said that, When we know something, we either do or can directly know that we are knowing it, and when we believe something we know or can know that we are believing and not knowing it, and in view of the former fact, we know that in certain instances of its use our intelligence is not defective… Prichard94 Prichard also characterized the point in terms of knowing by reflection: Knowing by reflection is knowledge one achieves merely by thinking about the matter at hand.
Further, even if one reflects a good deal, Prichard holds that the knowing thereby achieved is direct knowing, presumably because one need make no inferences from one belief to another in the activity of reflecting.
Prichard is here endorsing the KK-thesis, i. Philosophers who endorse what we can call knowledge internalism accept something akin to what Prichard endorses, though their main focus is slightly different.
That is, knowledge internalism concerns not knowing that one knows, as in Prichard, but rather knowing or being aware of that on the basis of which one knows. For example, imagine that you know that a flock of Canada geese has landed in a neighborhood park in your city; and suppose that you came by this piece of knowledge on the basis of and as a result of some testimony from another person internalism vs externalism essay help has just returned from that park.
Then knowledge internalism would be the view that in knowing that the geese are in the park, one also knows or is aware of that on the basis of which one knows, namely, one is aware of the testimony on the basis of which one has knowledge of the geese. Or, more plausibly, one could become aware merely by reflection of that on the basis of which one knows about the geese.
A knowledge basis as here understood need not be restricted to other pieces of knowledge or beliefs, but could also include experiences a person has had.
Using this terminology, we could say that knowledge internalism is the thesis that a person either is aware or can be become aware of the knowledge basis for each item of knowledge that person may have. It is clear that when one is aware of the knowledge basis, or when one can become aware of the knowledge basis, that one thereby has a kind of access to the knowledge basis.
Accessibility, it is often said, is the core idea behind internalism, and it is also usually supposed that the sort of accessibility one has is pretty much what Prichard spoke of, namely a kind of direct awareness that one actually engages in or could engage in merely by reflection.
Using these ideas we can characterize two different forms of access knowledge internalism. One knows some proposition p only if one is also aware of one's knowledge basis for p. One knows some proposition p only if one can become aware by reflection of one's knowledge basis for p.
Here we assume that the awareness spoken of in Actual Access knowledge internalism is the direct sort that Prichard had in mind. It is an awareness that is not brought about by any calculation or reasoning.
To illustrate and partly defend Actual Access knowledge internalism, imagine that you look at a tree in the park, and thereby come to know that there is a tree there. We can suppose for these illustrative purposes that your knowledge basis is the visual experience of the tree, and thus that you acquire direct, non-inferential knowledge of the presence of the tree.
In this example, when you acquire that knowledge, it seems plausible to also think that you are aware that you are engaged in seeing, and that the content of the visual event is a tree.
Moreover, this same sort of point will hold for all manner of easily acquired perceptual knowledge, including that acquired by other sense modalities. So, for a very wide range of cases all involving, we are supposing, non-inferential perceptual knowledge acquisition, actual access will be quite plausible.
In those cases it seems right to think that you are aware of the knowledge basis, the specific perceptual experience and its content, in which you engage when the knowledge is first secured.
Even so, Actual Access knowledge internalism is not plausible when taken in full generality, for these perceptual cases make up only a small portion of one's knowledge.
We need only notice that most of one's knowledge is stored knowledge, that is, knowledge one gained at an earlier time and has since retained. Imagine that a person knows that Illinois was Abraham Lincoln's home state. She acquired this knowledge years before, while in elementary school, and has retained it ever since.
It is most implausible to think that she is now aware of her knowledge basis for this knowledge about Lincoln, and this in two important senses. First, it is hardly likely that she is now aware of her original knowledge basis, whatever that may have been back in elementary school.
Also, second, it is most likely that she has no current awareness of her present knowledge basis, presumably something to do with ongoing stable memory. Of course, some people will have such awareness, but we should not let this fact lead us to the conclusion that every person with this knowledge of Lincoln's home state will be aware of the workings of memory.
We should, thus, reject Actual Access knowledge internalism as implausible. Accessibility and Internalism Most likely, defenders of internalism about knowledge will be unfazed by this rejection.
Much more plausible, and also much more likely to be the actual view internalists have in mind, is Accessibility knowledge internalism. It requires only that one can become aware of the knowledge basis, either by easy and quick reflection in some cases, or by more difficult and lengthy reflection in others.
What matters, however, is not the temporal length of the reflection, but rather that this is an awareness one can achieve merely by reflection.
And there is something right about this, because we all engage in this sort of activity all the time, often with good success. We can, then, focus attention on Accessibility knowledge internalism.
Access to a knowledge basis can itself be thought of in two ways. One might be capable of attaining awareness of what is in fact one's knowledge basis, but without also being capable of being aware that this item is one's knowledge basis.
Or, one might actually be capable of attaining awareness that some item is one's knowledge basis. The difference is this: By making use of this distinction in the knowledge case, we can specify two different versions of Accessibility knowledge internalism AKIa weak form and a strong form.
Hereafter it will be presumed that we are speaking only of Accessibility knowledge internalism, and we can speak of weak and strong AKI.The Nature of Knowledge.
Know - "(1) to perceive or understand clearly and with certainty; to have in the mind or memory as the result of experience, learning, or information; to understand and be able to use; to have personal experience of; (2) to feel certain.".
Internalism and externalism are two opposing ways of explaining various subjects in several areas of barnweddingvt.com include human motivation, knowledge, justification, meaning, and truth. The distinction arises in many areas of debate with similar but distinct meanings.
Internalism vs externalism essays.
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Internalist vs. Externalist Conceptions of Epistemic Justification First published Mon Jan 24, ; substantive revision Fri Aug 8, Generally, when a person knows some proposition or other, she does so on the basis of something such as evidence, or good reasons, or .
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