# Montessori math

Math Materials, Activities and Philosophy Tuesday, June 08, Michelle Irinyi This system in which a child is constantly moving objects with his hands and actively exercising his senses, also takes into account a child's special aptitude for mathematics.  Math is an abstract concept. The ability to count, compute and use numerical relationships are hugely significant human achievements. The number system is an abstract invention that has been created over thousands of years. Children are naturally attracted to the science of number.

They are trying to understand their world and make sense of their environment. They have an inborn ability to see differences and similarities, patterns and sequences.

The Montessori materials that are designed for categorizing and sorting help build this internal order. The mathematical concepts covered in the primary Montessori classroom are numeration, the decimal system, computation, the arithmetic tables, whole numbers, fractions and positive numbers.

Arithmetic is the process of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Geometry and algebra are introduced in the sensorial area of the classroom.

The sensorial and practical life areas of the classroom prepare the child for math and language. The foundation for geometry is developed through the sensorial materials. For instance, some of the materials are graded by size. Children experience spatial relations by manipulating these materials the pink tower, the brown stair, red rods, constructive triangles, two main types of graded cylinders, plane shapes and geometric solids.

The plane shapes and geometric solids are the basis for computing volume and surface area. The monomial, binomial and trinomial cubes are all geometric representations of algebraic equations, used in higher math. Squares and cubes pave the way for the golden beads where the child experiences the concept of one hundred beads joined to make a square and a thousand beads joined to make a cube.

Sensorial activities also indirectly prepare for base ten counting. The pink tower has ten graded cubes, increasing in size by 1 cm. The numerical rods in the math area are similar rods but are divided into ten consecutive red and blue sections of 10cm.

The child can set the rods out from numbers one to ten so it shows that the longer the rod, the higher the number. Simple math calculations can be performed with the red and blue rods. In mathematics, objects are classified and have a definite order.

All parts of the sensorial curriculum have classification activities. Practical life activities are done in a definite order, which is internalized. Pre-reading activities include matching, sorting and sequencing activities.

The practical life activities are the foundation of the entire Montessori curriculum. Its direct aims are coordination, confidence, independence, concentration and order. These five attributes are internalized and benefit the child throughout life.

Manipulation of the materials requires coordination. Finally, the child must have the confidence to work independently. The Montessori math program addresses three separate concepts: The child uses concrete materials that isolate each concept. Then the child is shown how to label a quantity with the appropriate numerical symbol.

The child then advances to a progression of sequential materials that combine number and quantity. After children have become familiar with the numbers one through ten, they progress to the teens, and then focus on numbers to one hundred. After that, he child is ready for the golden beads which are used for large number recognition over one hundred.

Golden beads are also used for the basic arithmetic functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.In contrast to many preschool programs, which focus on math readiness, AIM’s Montessori preschool program actually enables students to learn arithmetic into the thousands while in preschool..

The math program builds upon indirect preparation especially in the sensorial barnweddingvt.com’s build around a systematic progression from very concrete materials to more abstract operations. Info Montessori has a lot of information on using Montessori math materials. 