Looking back, Justice and Injustice have made frequent headlines overin fact for most of the last decade.
Broadly construed, the aim of science is to understand the nature of "the world. As there are many aspects of the world that we want to understand, to explain, and to predict, unsurprisingly, there are many sciences. Cognitive scienceor more broadly, the cognitive and learning sciences, include the disciplines of computer science, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and robotics among others.
What binds researchers from these diverse fields is the aim to understand how intelligent systems work. An intelligent system is something that processes internal information in order to do something purposeful.
Although humans are intelligent systems, other "natural" kinds of intelligent systems are also studied. So too are robots and other "artificial" intelligent systems. While it is true that perception is one of the many aspects of intelligent systems studied by cognitive scientists, it is also true that there are many aspects to perception.
Thus, cognitive scientific research into the nature of perception is driven by many kinds of questions. For instance, many cognitive scientists labor to resolve issues about human perception. Some of the questions motivating their research include: How do our sensory systems work?
Why are we susceptible to illusions? Which structures in the brain perform which perceptual functions?
Do we owe our ability to recognize faces, places, objects, etc. How do perceptual states acquire meaning? But not all cognitive scientists labor to resolve questions about human perception.
The goal of many cognitive scientists is to build mobile robots -- artificial perceivers capable of exploring their environment.
As such, a great many cognitive scientists labor to settle issues about machine perception. Some of the questions motivating their research are: Is it possible to build a creature that perceives as we do?
How can a mobile robot be built that recognizes danger, then carries out the intelligent action of moving out of harms way? Must robots use computers to do their perceptual processing, or are there other options?
How do perceptual states in a machine acquire meaning?
Is it possible for an artificial "perceiving" machine to have a mind? If so, how can we tell whether one does?
These lists of questions are not intended to be exhaustive, but to illustrate the variety of questions that lead cognitive scientists to study perception.
And because research cannot occur in the absence of a research method, it is a fact of cognitive scientific life that cognitive scientists use a host of methods to study perception and other phenomena associated with intelligent systems.
Some methods are used by researchers in only one cognitive scientific field e. Others are used by researchers from several disciplines.
While it is important for you to understand what has been discovered about perception through cognitive scientific research, it is equally important for you to understand something about the research methods through which discoveries are made.
From the outset, it is important to recognize that no single research method can answer all our questions about the nature of perception."This is an excellent textbook for an undergraduate class in Sensation and Perception. The book covers all of the important topics in the field, and the authors include a good balance of classic research and recent research.
The objective of the study was to assess knowledge, perception and factors associated with use of modern contraceptive use among women. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 96 women aged years.
Human psychophysics is the quantitative measurement of our own perceptions. In essence, it is simply a more sophisticated version of what humans have done since time immemorial: noticed and reflected upon what we can see, hear, and feel. Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment..
All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system.
For . No single discipline can answer all of the questions about perception. And since no research can be done in the absence of a research method, instrument, or technique, it should come as no surprise to hear that cognitive scientists use a host of methods to study perception.
The use of any method of family planning by women is often influenced by their husbands. This qualitative study assessed the perception of married men in respect of spousal use of modern contraceptives. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among .