Socrates does not argue about his sentence but agrees with it, he chooses to die because he wants to do what he believes is right by not by not betraying the state and breaking his implied contract. Socrates said that one must listen to the few and not the many.
In the setting of the dialogue, Socrates has been condemned to die, and Crito comes with both the hopes and the means for Socrates to escape from prison.
When Socrates insists that they should examine whether he should escape or not, the central question turns into whether if it is unjust to disobey laws. However, the examination in Crito was incompletely and its logic flawed; in making this decision, Socrates has forsaken his life for his ideal of justice.
The examination was done in the elenchus, which has the structure that Socrates will start with an assumption and find contradictions to eliminate possible answers; the assumption here is that there are good reasons why Socrates should escape from prison.
Socrates starts his argument by first eliminating the public opinion as a reason why he should escape.
Next Socrates assumes that since only a good life is worth living, and that living a good life is the same as living a just life Crito 48bSocrates should escape for his life only if it is just for him to do so. Effectively, Socrates has reduced the question to whether if it is just to disobey the law by escaping prison and execution to decide if he should escape.
To this question, first Socrates says that he should not revenge injustice.
Because doing injustice is bad in any circumstances Crito 49bto return injustice just because of having injustice done onto himself would bad also Crito 49c. Therefore Socrates should not commit injustice just to get even with Athens. Injustice is bad because it harms, and disobedience to the law would harm the city Crito 50b ; so it seems that to disobey the law would be an injustice.
But why should Socrates obey the law of the city? Socrates reasons that since the city has done him great benefactions, such as giving birth to his life, taking care of his physical upbringing and his education, and granting him long years of benefits from the legal system Crito 50e — 51cSocrates owns the state a strong duty of gratitude just as a child would own to his father.
One of those duties is to obey the state like how a child obeys his parentswhich always has included the possibility of death such as in times of war Crito 51b. Socrates should obey the city because he has made an agreement to do so.
This agreement is the social contract that he has implicitly accepted and lived under for 70 years.
This contract is legitimate because Socrates had a thorough understanding of the legal system Crito 51e — 52ahe did not leave the city when he was given the fair chance all his life Crito 51 c-eand that he even has consciously benefited legally from this implicit agreement with law all his life.
Therefore it is evident that Socrates has made such a social contract with Athens, which he has been satisfied with so far.
It is just for one to keep the agreement he has made, therefore Socrates should keep the agreement made with Athens; and thus he should obey the state and its laws Crito 53c.
Following this reasoning, Socrates concludes that he should not escape from prison and his eventual execution. Socrates lacks the definition of justice throughout the discussion of justice. Socrates certainly thinks of justice as something intrinsic and absolute, instead of simply laws imposed by the state; this is evident when he refused to arrest Leon of Salamis by the order of the 30 tyrants which is an act of disobedience on the grounds of justice Apology 32c.
Clearly he believes that justice is higher than rulings of sovereignty. It is because of this lack of definition Socrates ends up contradicting himself. For instance, Socrates makes the proposition that one should seek expert knowledge instead of following majority opinion when it comes to justice; this would imply that the justice is not related to the opinion of the majority, as well as that the majority are no expert in justice.
If the social contract in the democratic Athens is assumed to be an agreement made between by the majority of the society, then justice is certainly independent from that social contract. Furthermore, Socrates assumes that disobeying laws and agreements is unjust.
But what is the state? It is no more than a collective of Athenians. Where do these laws come from? If he considers justice to be morally independent of laws, then some laws would be just and other unjust. There could be unjust laws, or just laws abused.
Socrates never considered these cases of whether he indeed justly deserves the death sentence or not. Therefore to simply obey laws may not necessarily lead to justice.Forms of Love in Plato's Symposium - Love, in classical Greek literature, is commonly considered as a prominent theme.
Love, in present days, always appears in the categories of books, movies or music, etc. Interpreted differently by different people, Love turns into a multi-faceted being. CRITO Crito, as reported by Plato, is an account by where Crito is attempting to influence Socrates that it is just to escape from prison to avoid certain death by execution.
Socrates' argument directly relates to the laws of the state and the role of the individual within it. Essay about Crito - CRITO Crito, as reported by Plato, is an account by where Crito is attempting to influence Socrates that it is just to escape from prison to avoid certain death by execution.
Socrates' argument directly relates to the laws of the state and the role of the individual within it. The "Crito" exhibits the character of Socrates.
On a more ethical level, Crito presents two more pressing arguments: first, if he stayed, he would be aiding his enemies in wronging him unjustly, and would thus be acting unjustly himself; and second, that he would be abandoning his sons and leaving them without a father.
Socrates In Platos Apology Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Socrates in the Apology is a variation of both religious fanatic and apostle of reason.
I will also make reference to Crito in order to strengthen my position that Socrates is indeed a religious man of reason. First I shall discuss the Apology. CRITO Crito, as reported by Plato, is an account by where Crito is attempting to influence Socrates that it is just to escape from prison to avoid certain death by execution.
Socrates' argument directly relates to the laws of the state and the role of the individual within it.