Being genuine, recognizing my strengths and maximizing it and improving my weaknesses, makes me a person I am today. I know that there are a lot of things to happen as I journey towards reaching my dreams. What is important I know my self which makes me happy.
It can come in various forms and a wide array of illicit behavior, such as bribery, extortion, fraud, nepotism, graft, speed money, pilferage, theft, and embezzlement, falsification of records, kickbacks, influence peddling, and campaign contributions. While corruption is Position paper on the philippine system attributed to the public sector, it also exists in other aspects of governance, such as political parties, private business sector, and NGO USAID, Anticorruption Strategy, UNDP classifies corruption into two types: Spontaneous corruption is usually found in societies observing strong ethics and morals in public service.
Institutionalized corruption, on the other hand, is found in societies where corrupt behaviors are perennially extensive or pervasive.
In these societies, corruption has become a way of life, a goal, and an outlook towards public office. Corruption in the government involves three broad layers.
First is corruption within the broader political system. Second, is corruption within the public sector, which is usually focused on three major problems: Third is corruption within specific agencies, which involves grand corruption involving widespread syndicates and millions of pesos ; and petty corruption which involves smaller amounts of money, such as grease money to facilitate the delivery of goods and services.
Certain types of corruption may not necessarily involve money. It may involve gift giving or influence-peddling. It can also come in the form of future benefits. With this type of corruption, the boundary between a corrupt and a non-corrupt behavior becomes quite thin. Take for instance the act of giving a gift to a public official as a token of appreciation for services done.
In some cultures, this may be ethically condoned. Laws and definitions of corruption, in this regard, become culturally bound.
In the Philippines, Presidential Decree 46 prohibited gift giving to public officials and employees. Despite this law, however, gift giving is still practiced as this habit has been imbedded in social norms. Democratic institutions such as separation of powers, judicial independence, and rule of law had good foundations, but were eroded by a personalistic political system and ambiguous policies in the past which allowed too much discretion given to government officials in dispensing resources and services.
This discretionary power, in a context of brittle accountability, supplied the basic incentives for corruption. The martial law years further weakened institutions in both national and local governments, undermining accountability, and resulting to rampant rent-seeking activities by exploiting government rules and resources.
The Corruption Perceptions Index published by global watchdog Transparency International, showed that the situation in the country had improved slightly but still remained serious. The Philippines ranked 3rd among countries included in the index, up from its previous st ranking in The nation scored 2.
Corruption exists in all levels of the government, especially among high-level civil servants, according to the US Department of State Investment Climate Statement Companies generally have little confidence in the Philippine judicial system, and this is due to the allegedly incompetent court personnel, corruption and long delays of court cases.
According to Robert Klitgaardmonopoly of power, when combined with discretion and absence of accountability, will result to corruption. This suggests that the absence of AIT primarily as a consequence of weak governance in addition to monopoly and discretion, results in corruption.
This formula strengthens the theory that corruption is primarily a failure in governance. Another school of thought explains that corruption is the end result of the politics of privilege, rent seeking and clientelism. Corruption is nurtured by politicians who coddle supporters and followers, who in turn pressure them to engage in corruption to spread the benefits of a corrupt regime.
Corruption creates a cycle that would make sure that benefits are concentrated on these small sector of the populace. It can also be explained by the principal-agent theory of Jensen and Meckling The agents in this case, the politicians and bureaucrats are able to abuse the advantages offered by such discretionary power in the wake of the incoherent interest of the principal in this case, the electorate or the public at large.
In the Philippines, this incoherence is partly the result of social divisions e. Much research has been done on the detrimental effect of corruption in development.
position paper on the philippine system of education. giving as much as you can in the smartest way possible will lead to good results on your end. I think the same goes for education. You have to invest in good education for you to make the most of your learning experience. Position paper on the philippine system of education; Position paper on the philippine system of education. 8 August Education; Too often in this world do we see people who decide to buy products because of their low price. Although many might say that they aim to save and spend less, in the long run, good quality products will always. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES CAVITE STATE UNIVERSITY – SILANG CAMPUS SILANG, CAVITE POSITION PAPER ABOUT GRAFT AND CORRUPTION In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Information Technology JOHN PAULO MUNGCAL PAUL GERALD ERMITAÑO CHARLO GANA VIN EIREN REYES APRIL
Studies show that a corrupt country is likely to achieve aggregate investment levels of almost 5 per cent less than a relatively uncorrupt country and to lose about half a percentage point of gross domestic product per year. It is also shown to slow down FDI. Investing in a relatively corrupt country, as compared with an uncorrupt one, is estimated to be equivalent to 20 percent private tax on investment.
High levels of corruption reduce economic growth. It can distort the allocation of resources and the performance of government in many ways.Delegations may save partial position papers in the system before submitting the final position paper.
Please do not include any header information (e.g. committee name, topic name, school name, or delegation name) at the top of the form. The Philippine Action for Youth and Offenders (PAYO) remains steadfast in its position at this time that rather than amend the MACR, the law should be fully implemented to gain the essence of juvenile justice.
position paper on the philippine system of education. giving as much as you can in the smartest way possible will lead to good results on your end.
I think the same goes for education. You have to invest in good education for you to make the most of your learning experience.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES CAVITE STATE UNIVERSITY – SILANG CAMPUS SILANG, CAVITE POSITION PAPER ABOUT GRAFT AND CORRUPTION In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Information Technology JOHN PAULO MUNGCAL PAUL GERALD ERMITAÑO CHARLO GANA VIN EIREN REYES APRIL Position paper on the philippine system of education; Position paper on the philippine system of education.
8 August Education; Too often in this world do we see people who decide to buy products because of their low price.
Although many might say that they aim to save and spend less, in the long run, good quality products will always. This position paper takes into consideration emerging trends and broader socio-economic development challenges that affect developed and developing countries alike in a globalized, interconnected world, and their implications for education.