It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood. History This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Blockwas discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD.
Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: Iron Age writing[ edit ] Cippus PerusinusEtruscan writing near PerugiaItalythe precursor of the Latin alphabet The sculpture depicts a scene where three soothsayers are interpreting to King Suddhodana the dream of Queen Mayamother of Gautama Buddha.
Below them is seated a scribe recording the interpretation. This is possibly the earliest available pictorial record of the art of writing in India. From Nagarjunakonda2nd century CE.
The Phoenician alphabet is simply the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as it was continued into the Iron Age conventionally taken from a cut-off date of BC. This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets.
These in turn led to the writing systems used throughout regions ranging from Western Asia to Africa and Europe. For its part the Greek alphabet introduced for the first time explicit symbols for vowel sounds.
The Brahmic family of India is believed by some scholars to have derived from the Aramaic alphabet as well. Several varieties of the Greek alphabet developed.
The other variation, known as Eastern Greekwas used in present-day Turkey and by the Athenians, and eventually the rest of the world that spoke Greek adopted this variation. After first writing right to left, like the Phoenicians, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right.
Greek is in turn the source for all the modern scripts of Europe. The most widespread descendant of Greek is the Latin scriptnamed for the Latinsa central Italian people who came to dominate Europe with the rise of Rome.
The Romans learned writing in about the 5th century BC from the Etruscan civilizationwho used one of a number of Italic scripts derived from the western Greeks. Due to the cultural dominance of the Roman state, the other Italic scripts have not survived in any great quantity, and the Etruscan language is mostly lost.
Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance except within the Church of Rome. The primary literary languages were Greek and Persianthough other languages such as Syriac and Coptic were important too.
The rise of Islam in the 7th century led to the rapid rise of Arabic as a major literary language in the region. Arabic and Persian quickly began to overshadow Greek's role as a language of scholarship.
Arabic script was adopted as the primary script of the Persian language and the Turkish language. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languagesLatinand other languages[ citation needed ].
The Arabic language also served to spread the Hindu—Arabic numeral system throughout Europe. Renaissance and the modern era[ edit ] By the 14th century a rebirth, or renaissancehad emerged in Western Europe, leading to a temporary revival of the importance of Greek, and a slow revival of Latin as a significant literary language.
A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia. At the same time Arabic and Persian began a slow decline in importance as the Islamic Golden Age ended. The revival of literary development in Western Europe led to many innovations in the Latin alphabet and the diversification of the alphabet to codify the phonologies of the various languages.On Writing: 10th Anniversary Edition: A Memoir of the Craft [Stephen King] on barnweddingvt.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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